We have seen different data structures in R. Now let’s see some useful functions for working with these data objects.

Functions |
Purpose |

`length(x)` |
Number of elements/components. |

`dim(x)` |
Dimensions of x. |

`str(x)` |
Structure of x. |

`class(x)` |
Class or type of x. |

`mode(x)` |
How x is stored. |

`names(x)` |
Names of components in x. |

`c(x1, x2,...)` |
Combines x1,x2 into a vector. |

`cbind(x1, x2, ...)` |
Combines x1,x2 as columns. |

`rbind(x1, x2, ...)` |
Combines x1,x2 as rows. |

`x` |
Prints the x. |

`head(x)` |
Lists the first part of the x. |

`tail(x)` |
Lists the last part of the x. |

`ls()` |
Lists current objects. |

`rm(x1, x2, ...)` |
Deletes one or more objects. The statement rm(list = ls()) will remove most objects from the working environment. |

`y <- edit(x)` |
Edits `x` and saves as `y` . |

`fix(x)` |
Edits in place. |

If I have missed any functions, Let me know in the comment section below.