Directories and their role in Linux

In Windows, just after the install, there are a few standard directories like Windows, Program Files, Documents and Settings/Users. In Linux, a similar structure exists but with much more directories. Let’s see the most important ones below:

/home contains user’s personal folders and files

/root contains the files and folders of the root user

/dev special files for system hardware devices

/etc system configuration files for the operating system and applications

/tmp here are stored the temporary files

/opt additional installed software which is not part of the operating system – 3rd party software

/boot contains a minimum number of files needed by the operating system to boot – a part of bootloader, boot manager and the kernel

/proc contains a pseudo file system which does not exist on the hard disk, all the resources under /proc are information that the kernel presents to the user as files, this way the user can access information about hardware, processes, settings and so on. Some of the files can be modified and the effect is replicated directly into the Kernel

/var contains variable data/data that changes very often

/var/mail contains the mailboxes if a web server is installed

/var/log log files created by the system or other applications

/bin files that can be executed (binary files) used to troubleshot or debug the operating system.

/sbin binary files that are used for system administration (can be used by root user)

/lib libraries of data used by the kernel and Linux OS (Operating System), needed to boot and to run commands from /bin and /sbin

/mnt used to temporary mount other file systems

/usr the place where user’s applications are installed. This folder also contains a file structure.

/usr/bin commands available for the user

/usr/lib libraries available for the user

/usr/local used to install available software only on the local machine

/usr/share architecture-independent data that is not modifying

Introduction to Linux

What is Linux?

In simple terms, Linux is a computer operating system. It’s the software that enables computer applications and the computer operator to access devices on the computer to perform whatever function is desired. The operating system relays instructions from the application to the processor to accomplish whatever goal has been set out to do. It is, in essence, the nervous system of your computer. sending signals and messages to and from the user and the processor.

Competing with Windows, Linux has managed to earn a fair amount of popularity owing to its unique features like being free software and supporting open source development.

Linux is one of the popularly used operating systems and a free software supporting open source development. Originally designed for Intel 80386 microprocessors, Linux now runs on a variety of computer architectures and is widely used in desktops, webservers and mainframe computers

10 of the most popular distributions of Linux are

  • MX Linux
  • Manjaro
  • Mint
  • Ubuntu
  • Debian
  • elementary OS
  • Solus
  • Pop!_OS
  • Fedora
  • Zorin

Do you have other opinions? What Linux distribution do you like or use? Let us know!

Share Screen not working in Linux for Skype and Team Viewer [Solved]

The applications like Skype, team viewer give you an option to share your screen with others. I have encountered a problem with sharing screen on my Fedora operating system. Also, read posts in the different forum that such problem is faced by many users with Ubuntu, Manjaro, Debian and etc.., For example, In Skype application for Linux, they don’t see share screen at all. Similarly in Team viewer when they share the screen the whole screen goes black.

The solution is very simple for this and here I explain to you how to solve it.

Linux with Gnome uses two different graphical servers they are Wayland and Xorg. By default Gnome interface login with Wayland and this is the cause of the above-mentioned problem to solve this.

  1. Just Logout or restart the system.
  2. In the login screen, switch to Xorg by selection the option available with the settings icon near the login button.
  3. Once you have selected Xorg and logged in, now you will be able to see share screen option in Skype and also you will be able to share the screen in TeamViewer.

If you still have any queries drop it below in the comment section.

Also Read: Missing icons in Stata on Linux [Solved]

Stata missing icons on Linux [Solved]

Hello all, with an assumption that you have successfully installed Stata on your Linux system. I further proceed on steps involved to get icons after installation. In case if you had any problem in installation follow the steps mentioned here.

Before moving on I recommend you to install Stata in the default directory that is suggested by Stata (/usr/local/stata or /usr/local/stata/stata$version)

Instructions

Step:1 Download the script from https://bitbucket.org/vilhuberl/stata-png-fix and extract its contents (you can use either zip or tar).

Step 2: Change the directory to the newly extracted folder in terminal using cd command. Make sure that you have sudo privileges. Once you have admin privileges run the following code from within the folder where you extracted the larsvilhuber’s solution:

Code:

compile-stata-png-fix.sh

During the installation process, you will have to press ENTER twice. You will have to enter your password too (in order to get the libraries we are trying to install).

Step 4: The script finalises with four suggestions for four new symlinks. You really need only one, though (assuming that you only use one version of Stata). For example, if you use Stata-mp you could do:

Code:

sudo ln -sf /usr/local/stata-png-fix/stata-png-fixed.sh /usr/local/bin/xstata-se

Step 5: Now, provided that /usr/local/bin is in your $PATH, you should be able to just type xstata-se to get Stata with icons.

(If you installed Stata in /usr/local/stata then you should not need to change anything. However, if you installed Stata in a different location you will have to change the directory to which the symlink points at (simply by replacing /usr/local/stata with whatever you need, like /opt/stata)).

Finally, Now if you run in a terminal xstata-se (the name of the symlink in /usr/local/bin) you should get Stata with icons. Hope this helps.

Source: (Stata14 Icons)

Keyboard shortcuts to work between Workspaces in Elementary OS

Elementary OS is a beautiful Linux distribution that is build based on Ubuntu. Its appealing look and animation lookalike Mac OS. Let’s see default keyboard shortcuts to swap between and to work between workspaces in Elementary OS. By default, all app windows open on one workspace. However, you can use multiple workspaces to organize your workflow:

  • To see an overview of your workspaces, press Super key+S
  • To quickly move left or right through your workspaces, press Super key + ← or Super key + →
  • To cycle through your workspaces, press Super key+Tab
  • You can jump straight to a specific workspace by pressing Super key + 1 through Super key+ 9 (maximum 9 workspaces) .
  • You can always jump to a new workspace with Super key + 0
  • You can also drag app windows between workspaces by dragging their icons in the workspace overview, or move them left and right between workspaces using Super key + Alt + ← or Super key + Alt + →
  •  To see an overview of app windows across all workspaces, press Super key + A

You can customize these shortcuts through System SettingsKeyboardShortcutsWorkspaces.

Note: Super key is also known as the “Windows” key on most PCs and the “Command” key on Macs.

Viewing Date, Time and Calendar in Linux terminal

Linux terminal is used for many advanced functions but let’s learn a few commands for fun that can display date, time and calendar.

Open the terminal in your favourite Linux distro and try the following command.

Date in Terminal

date: displays the date, day, time along with Time zone

cal: displays calendar of current month

cal 2020 : displays 2020 year calendar

cal Aug 2020: displays August month calendar of the year 2020

Example

[[email protected] ~]$ date
Wednesday 05 August 2020 12:31:26 AM IST
[[email protected] ~]$ date "+%A"
Wednesday
[[email protected] ~]$ date "+%D"
08/05/20
[[email protected] ~]$ date "+%T"
00:31:46
[[email protected] ~]$ cal
August 2020 
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31